While these changes present opportunities, many of these cities are facing challenges to their longer-term development prospects, with strains on infrastructure, high levels of inequality, issues around affordability, and environmental degradation. The leading cities for future-proofing, as identified by JLL’s City Momentum Index, include major global hubs such as New York, London and Paris. The jobs and businesses of the future will be created in cities that have an ecosystem to nurture innovative start-ups and scale-ups. Some of the world’s most future-proof cities are also its strongest technology hubs. In cities such as London, Toronto, Sydney, Melbourne and Edinburgh, which have some of the world’s most transparent real estate markets, market openness plays an equally important role in securing future growth, by attracting global capital and business. Smaller cities such as Austin, Vancouver and Denver rely on strong education systems and well-developed public infrastructure that enhance the overall quality of life, helping to attract and retain talent. In the US, world-class universities in Boston, Los Angeles and San Diego help generate a highly educated workforce, while the quality of their research institutes makes these cities global leaders in science and technology.
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